Here we are in the midst of another cold Massachusetts winter and like every winter here in New England many property owners will have major issues with ice dams causing roof leaks and shingle damage.
Although it may seem as though ice dams are an unstoppable force of nature, they are actually quite preventable. Attics and cathedral or vaulted ceiling areas that have been correctly incorporated into the overall building envelope don’t have problems with ice dams and icicles in the cold seasons. Through the use of proper insulation and ventilation techniques ice dams can be stopped cold (pun intended).
Here a typical scenario for the formation of ice dams:
- A house has a build up of snow on the roof.
- The temperature outside is below freezing.
- The temperature inside the attic is above freezing, thus raising the temperature of the roof itself to above freezing.
- Because of the warm roof, the snow on top of it begins to melt from the bottom up.
- This melted snow water tries to run down and off the roof.
- As soon as the water reaches the edge of the roof it gets exposed to the freezing air.
- The water refreezes as ice instead of snow in the gutters, if present, and along the edges of the roof.
- As more and more melted snow water continues to run down the roof it just keeps freezing behind and on top of the previously frozen run off, forming a bigger and bigger ice dam.
So How Do Ice Dams Cause Roof Leaks?
The melted snow water doesn’t immediately freeze anymore after the ice dam has begun to take shape. Once the ice dam has built up a bit it literally creates a dam that traps the rest of the water trying to run off the roof behind it. While this trapped water will eventually freeze, it may take a while and during that time a portion of the shingles on this roof, behind the ice dam, are basically submerged in water.
Now of course your roof shingles are obviously suppose to protect your home from the weather i.e. rain and snow. However, most roofing materials are not meant to have a pond or river on top of them.
So What Can You Do To Prevent Ice Dams?
First and foremost you must recognize that proper insulation and ventilation is the key(see image on right). If we are talk about an attic area then typically this means that the insulation needs to run up the walls of your house then over the attic floor joists forming an ideal insulation envelope. In the attic scenario only the floor of the attic should be insulated, not the underside of the roof!
Proper ventilation is also required. Outside air needs to be able to enter the attic so that the attic temperature is the same as the temperature outside. You achieve this ventilation through the use of gable vents, soffit vents and a roof ridge vent.
In roof systems with attic areas below them it is fairly straight forward to have a contractor that knows what they are doing to correct any problems as far as proper insulation and ventilation. However, roof systems with a cathedral ceiling below them that have these issues are much more of a project to correct, but they can be corrected.
In order to have a properly ventilated and insulated cathedral ceiling the contractor must install baffles within each rafter bay before installing the insulation. These baffles allow air to flow between the soffit vents and the ridge vent which keeps the underside of the roof the same temperature as outside. If these baffles ore not installed in your cathedral ceiling then the contractor will need to remove the existing sheetrock and insulation from your ceiling in order to properly ventilate the area. This type of project will be more expensive than an attic project.
In addition to the ice dam issue, if your attic is warmer than the outside temperature you are also wasting lots of money heating that space. So basically you are paying extra money on your heating bill for the privilege of growing nice big ice dams and icicles that cause roof leaks and destroy your roof. Kind of makes it even worse when you think of it that way doesn’t it?
What Can You Do About Existing Ice Dams?
If it’s the middle of the winter and you have ice dams or through past experience you think they will be forming soon there are some measures you can take. First of all, if you don’t have experience climbing on a roof in the winter, especially with snow on it, don’t do it! Call a pro. What you can do is go to your local hardware store and buy a snow rake that has an extendable handle designed to pull snow off of the first few feet of the roof and attempt to pull some of that snow off, from the ground, before it has a chance to melt and refreeze along the roof edges. You can also do this once the ice dam has formed and keep it from getting any bigger and give it a chance to melt, hopefully.
Also, many roofing contractors, us included, work through the winter and often provide roof snow removal services in addition to their typical roofing services. This is a service we are happy to provide for our customers here in Massachusetts, for example. Again, please don’t try and do this yourself. Between icy ladders and slippery roof surfaces it is a recipe for disaster for the inexperienced.
There are also some products on the market that can assist in preventing ice dams before they form and melting them if they have already formed. You should be able to find a home improvement store in your area that sells a product that is basically a coated, heated wire that you fasten along the edges of the roof and then plug in when the conditions are right for the ice dams to form (see picture on right). These actually work pretty good, however, they aren’t solving the real problem which, of course, is ventilation and insulation issues. They may be right for some homes in some circumstances though.
Most home improvement and hardware stores also sell pellets or tablets that are designed to be thrown up onto the roof from the ground. These tablets then supposedly will melt the ice from the roof as they dissolve into the water that is running down the roof into the ice dam. I have no experience with these products so I can’t say for certain if they work as designed or not. However, some people say they have worked for their ice dam problems. A couple of things I would be worried about as a roofing contractor is potential damage to the shingles from the chemicals these tablets are made of (salt is no good for asphalt shingles), as well as possibly staining the roof with those same chemicals. And even in a base case situation this product is still just a band-aid for a greater problem.
Proper Roofing Techniques For Cold Climates
In addition to making sure that the roof has proper ventilation and attic insulation there is an additional level of security against ice dam issues and roof leaks that all responsible and ethical roofing contractors should be taking in cold weather climates with regards to pitched, asphalt shingled roofs. When a new roof is installed, these days, an extra layer of protection called ice and water membrane should be installed from the edge to at least 3 feet up the roof.
This added layer of protection will help prevent leaks if ice dams do develop along the roof edges. Ice and water membrane will not prevent ice dams it simply is added security to help protect the plywood sheathing beneath the asphalt shingles and prevent leaks should an ice dam form.
You’ll be surprised, most people do not put much effort into decorating their homes nicely. Well, either that or they don’t really know how to. Since most of us spend the majority of our time in the house, it would be beneficial to have a more aesthetically appealing home, wouldn’t it? A home that’s beautiful will not only make you feel more like coming home at the end of a long day of work, but is something you can be proud of and show off to your friends and family. Here is some quick advise for getting your house appeal in order.
Furniture can play a big part in the design of your home or room, so don’t underestimate the damage that bad furniture can do. You can tell from the people who have no idea about interior or home design – they tend to buy everything and everything when it comes to furnishings, making their home look more like a junk yard or second-hand store rather than a aesthetically pleasing living space. Beautiful homes will always be themed, or at least have some sort of coherent style throughout, both in decor and in color. When redesigning your current or new home, you should definitely keep this in mind.
When you’re shopping around for furniture for the home, you don’t really need to spend an extravagant amount of money. In fact, there’s plenty of second hand stores at which you can pick up some really great contemporary or antique furniture at very reasonable prices to decorate your home with. You can even go with lower priced furniture with large retail stores such as Ikea. The benefits of buying from these retail outlets is that their furniture range comes in sets, all in a certain theme and color co-ordinates. To start off on a good foot, you could purchase a lounge set or bedding set first, then buy the other pieces of furnishings that are built around that style and those colors.
To get further ideas on decorating your home, you can furthermore pick up informative magazines from a newsagent that specialize in interior design. These magazines will normally feature full-color photos which you can use to draw inspiration from, both in style and also colors.
TV furniture takes many different forms, ranging from full entertainment wall units to single TV cabinets. Your choice will likely depend upon the space you have available, although many people prefer a wall unit to a single stand-alone cabinet.
The reason for the popularity of entertainment wall units is simply that they take up wall space, and have minimum impact on living space. They also accommodate more than just the TV, and while it could be looked on as TV furniture with display options added, most regard it as a wall display unit, and perhaps bookcase, that includes room for the TV! There are two ways of looking at it.
If we look at individual pieces of TV furniture first, we can then see how that might be expanded in a more general form of entertainment furniture or leisure unit, so as to make the best use of the wall space you have available. Very few homes have no wall space free, and if even if not there is usually some form of existing wall furniture that can be replaced to incorporate television furniture.
Traditional TV furniture involves a simple stand or console that holds the TV on top, and with room for some boxes and DVDs on the storage shelves below. The shelves can be behind glass doors to keep out dust or remain open. Usually, such consoles are available in a range of widths according to the width of your TV set.
More intricate are TV consoles in the form of chests. There is a wide variety of these, fitted with cupboards and drawers, or a combination of glass doors and open shelving to accommodate not only the TV equipment and boxes, but also hi-fi equipment. These are still individual pieces of TV furniture that can be situated anywhere in the room – either against a wall or in an island situation, a common position being a bay window or alcove.
However, entertainment units are more substantial, and more than simply TV furniture. These can be built yourself by combining various pieces from a collection, designed to be used just for that purpose – the ‘sectionals’ of wall furniture if you like. These entertainment units will generally consist of a TV hutch, to contain the flat screen, with a cabinet below for the accessories and DVDs and so on.
To each side would be more cabinetry to house a hi-fi unit, perhaps some of the speakers and possibly an iPod dock, also attached to the speakers. Many people use the same set of surround speakers for all their equipment, though that would depend on the quality of the speakers.
Then, space permitting, there would be display shelves for curios or ornaments and perhaps even bookshelves. Now you can possibly see where a TV stand can be incorporated into your wall space, even if you have existing wall furniture in place. You could combine that or change it. Most people would purchase from new, and if you choose the right range of furniture you can do that in stages.
The TV furniture could be acquired first, and then you could expand the rest around it as you could afford it. It is better building slowly using good quality furniture than buying an entire wall-full of cheap furniture at once. The high quality pieces will match each other no matter when you purchase them. That’s one of the benefits you pay for when buying high quality entertainment or television furniture. This year’s purchase matches last year’s.
The Paula Deen Down Home entertainment console is a case in point. You can build this 126W x 84H inches unit from four pieces: a console, a TV hutch and two side display units. You could add to this over time to extend it over the whole of one wall if you wanted to. The same is true of large numbers of entertainment units: start with one piece of TV furniture, then slowly add to it until you have a complete entertainment center you can be proud of.
It might take time, but it will be worth it in the end. Of course, if you have the money you can do that all at once, and because you are building it up yourself you can have exactly what your particular room needs. Some people even put the hutch on a rotating bezel, so it rotates 180 degrees, with the flat screen one side and a display unit the other. You can have one side showing or the other depending on whether you are watching TV or not. But then you need room behind for the rotation!
There are many different types of TV furniture available on the market, and it’s best to check out what is online and then visit the showroom. That means you should choose the website of a furniture company that has a showroom close to your home. You can then see it in real life and decide if it’s for you or not.
Whether you are remodeling your existing bathroom or creating a new one for your new home, the bathroom’s wall design is an important factor that should be kept in mind. When you plan to revamp your bathroom, you must prioritize the work; you can start off by giving the wall design a high priority as it is often ignored and only considered as an after thought. It is very crucial to decide the material that you would like to use to give your bathroom wall a new look. You have a wide range of material types to choose from and every type exhibits numerous colors and patterns.
When you start the work of revamping your bath wall it is important to determine the wall design and material that will be used for the remodeling. You can use materials like marble, colored or plain tiles, terra cotta, limestone, glass, stone etc. Determine the advantages and disadvantages of every material type and decide which suits you the best. Most people would consider installing marble tiles, as it gives a unique look to the walls of your bath. Terra cotta tiles to cover the walls are also a good option as it is known for its long lifespan as compared to other conventional materials.
You can also affix glass to act as the bathroom wall design, provided it should be installed by a professional who can do it in the best way possible. You may require help from a professional as this glass should be handled with care because they are expensive and can break easily. Vinyl tiles are an affordable and less expensive alternative to the other materials. There are many people who have used vinyl tiles to fix on their bathroom walls as they are easy to install and to revamp in case you plan to modify your bathroom’s design in the future. If you choose to use granite tiles or any conventional tiles, you can also use more than one different pattern to create a unique look.
Concrete walls are one of the best options when you consider modifying your bathroom wall. The concrete wall enables you to change the pattern and color as and when you want it to be done. Adding textures to such walls may increase the attractiveness of your bathroom. You may choose from a range of textures to beautify your walls. You may ask your contractor to provide you with different designs to make the correct choice. If you plan to do a one-time investment, make sure you go for good quality materials that will last you longer and cost you less on the long run.
The value of getting safe home furniture
You might find that the only way that you can guarantee the safety of your children is to buy the toddler bunk beds. These are items that are traditionally kept in store for the young children in order to enable them to experience some of the joys of growing up in a safe environment. They are great items to have in the home because they save space. Unless you live in a particularly affluent environment there is no need for you to spend thousands of dollars on furniture for the children. They will not really appreciate it and might end up spoiling it during their fun time. Therefore the child care beds are a good solution.
We have to recognize that the overriding concern for all parents is that their children are sleeping in a safe and secure environment. They will be even willing to pay an extra bit of money if it is going to help them in the quest to reduce the risks that are facing their children. That is what normally happens and the manufacturers are expected to respond by creating products that are worthy of the names that they put on the brand. This might mean that they have to take a longer time when it comes to making that product. The claims that can come out of a faulty set of beds for children can seriously affect the profitability of the manufacturer. This is a situation they are always working to avoid.
The arrangement that you have in the home will be made much simpler if you are using nursery beds. Some people have designated playrooms for their young children but in most cases this is not possible for people that are living on limited incomes. They have to spread the space out so that it can cover the significant proportion of their family setting. In doing so they might fund that they have a great ally in the bedroom furniture. They are easy to move about and you can configure them in the way that you like so that they fit in with the decor that you have chosen for the rest of the home. All in all you have an item that gives you little trouble.
You can decide to have the easy home furniture in either wood or metal. There are other materials of varying space that lie between these two. The selection of the materials that are used is very important if you are to retain the stylistic integrity of your home as a whole. Some people might argue that this is just over the top. There is something about style that does not always sit well with toddlers. However if you have the money to indulge them then you can carry on and see what happens. This does not change the fundamental need to ensure that the process is managed effectively and sensitively. The purchase of great toddler beds is more than just paying cash.
Furniture is one of the most vital objects in each and every home. A person takes tremendous interest in planning and designing each and every part of their house, so that it can truly reflect their lifestyle in a straightforward manner. The market is flooded with varieties of styles and themes of furniture items that sometimes it becomes difficult to choose the best among them.
Selection of home furniture is not an easy task and is one of the daunting challenges you have to face. Hence, be careful before you buy anything for your house. The days have gone where furniture was made from wood only, now-a-days furniture are made from wood, steel, glass, plastic, leather, granite and the list tends to be endless. As you are having lot of options, you can choose different themes for each and every part of your house to make it look unique and special.
With the passage of time the design in furniture has also changed. But it is always advisable to choose the latest or modern one other than going for an outdated one. Furniture has always been center of attraction in any house because it indirectly reflects royalty and style, so be wise when choosing modern furniture items for your house.
There are so many varieties available in modern furniture; one can easily spruce up their home, be it living room, Bedroom or dinning room furniture. Living room is one of the important parts of house where families and guest spend more time together. So outdated furniture in the living room may embarrass you from welcoming your relatives and guests.
Decorating living room with leather sofa accompanied by wonderful sprawl chairs will definitely make your room one of the most beautiful and fascinating place as desired by you. Besides these, if you are willing to get more modernized look then you can go for various modern furniture objects like bookshelves, beautiful paintings on the wall, newspaper stand, coffee table, ottoman and even curios.
Bedroom is place where everybody spends their spare time and relaxes themselves. So the furniture theme has to be very eye-pleasing and beautiful. You can opt for wooden bedroom sets or plush leather; you can also go for modern dresser, benches and wardrobes, which add charm to room’s beauty. There are so many modern items that can make you feel like you are in paradise when in you are in bedroom.
Dining place is also an important place where families spend more time together. Also a center of attraction a place of meeting and discussion other than just a place of dinner. Elegantly designed glass tables or beautifully carved wooden tables are one of the modern furniture items that will definitely give your kitchen one of the most fascinating and modern look as desired by you.
Modern home furniture is so eye-pleasing that you always feel refreshed and energized. They are also long lasting and durable as they are made from strong material like wood, metal etc. No matter if you are going to buy furniture for individual room or for entire house, modern furniture would bring peace and prosperity in your life.
Online furniture stores are the easiest way to buy different kinds of modern home furniture. Through online store you will be able to get modern home furniture items of top brands at affordable rates.
Moving with transferable property
As people are moving from home to home the property ladder, they need furniture that can move with them. One of the things that you might want to buy if you are moving regularly is the bunk bed mattress. Buying that item is just the beginning of a long process of development that can culminate in a great stock of items that are flexible enough to support your lifestyle. If you are lucky enough to get into contact with a reputable supplier, they will give you the right directions when you are trying to get the mattress for the move of your choice. They will also give you some tips on how you can get the best out of your new purchase.
The first thing that you have to remember is the fact that the portable mattress is relatively invisible. In the first instance it is covered by other bedding. It would really be weird if you invited your guests to come and look at the quality of material that you have beneath your covers. This would suggest a level of intimacy that is not commonplace. That means that the looks of the product for camping always have to be secondary to the comfort levels that they bring to you as the buyer. Even where they are covered in a hideous color it will not matter if you can get the bedding of your choice. The only problem will arise if the item is not comfortable to sleep on.
When we are talking about bedding you do not really need something that looks nice yet it is very uncomfortable to sleep on. That would defeat the entire purpose of what you are trying to do. It is better to find something that meets both criteria. If this is no possible then you buy the easy furniture that is most comfortable. The looks can be covered up by appropriate bedding. That is a task that you can take on with relish and commitment. The people that have been able to get the best out of the system are the ones that work well with their instincts for comfort above style. An uncomfortable bed is a waste of space.
It is very important that you look after your new traveling kit so that it is not infested with bugs. Once the bugs take a hold of your living area then it is an absolute nightmare to try and get rid of them. They will irritate you to death and you might even have to bring in professional services in order to get rid of them. You should ensure that you have a regular bathing schedule and that you keep your room generally clean. Avoid sharing beds with people that have questionable hygiene habits. It is also a good idea to check out the different elements that go into the creation of the materials for travel so that you are not exposing yourself to allergic reactions that are avoidable.
Essential Gardening Tips
Gardening Tip #1: Build on a Good Foundation.
First, you must check the nitrogen and carbon levels in your soil. You want to start with a good foundation to your spring gardening season, and these tips will help. If you have very bad soil, I highly advise that you start with a square foot garden. You can either build a wood box or buy plastic ones from gardeners, which is what I did. You can then add fresh top soil from the store and add mulched and composted leaves. This is the best way to start.
Gardening Tip #2: Ensure Good Drainage.
When you have the square foot garden set up, you must ensure that the drainage is good, otherwise your plants will not survive and your gardening career will be miserable. Be positive that you provide just as much water as the plant needs, and you will know this amount through your gardening experience.
Gardening Tip #3: Provide Lots of Sunlight.
All plant life is totally dependent on the sun. without enough sunlight, the garden will never be strong and probably never sprout. This is absolutely crucial. However, you must ensure that the plants that are in the sun are able to withstand it. All this information is on the back of every seed packet. The square foot garden location should be carefully located according to drainage and sunlight location.
Gardening Tip #4: Make Variety.
For a successful garden, add a lot of variety to your garden. This will help with pests and the soil quality. If you vary the different plants, the insects will tend to not come back due to the uninsurability of what will be in the garden. Also, it is generally known that all farmers rotate their crops for better soil. All gardeners should do just the same!
Gardening Tip #5: Plant at the Proper Time.
This may seem obvious, but it is critical. If you plant the plants too soon, they will be frozen by the frost of early spring and all the work will be for nothing. If too late, they will not be able to gather strength before the sun beats down on them and withers them, or a fall frost eliminates them. Always check the seed packets for this information.
Gardening Tip #6: Jump Start Transplants.
Make positively sure that you buy good and healthy transplants. It is much wiser to spend more money for quality plants that will return a hundredfold in produce to your work. Make sure as well to give the transplants a lot of water, or they will not survive to thrive. However, the growing season is not as long as many people may think, so you have to get the plants into the ground at the proper time, and they will hit the ground running!
Gardening Tip #7: Resist Over-planting.
As a beginning gardener, it is best to just start small. As you perfect all the methods of growing and harvesting different kinds of produce, you will then be able to plant more of what you like.
Gardening Tip #8: Provide Plenty of Nutrients.
After you have planted the seeds and they are thriving, you must make sure that you continue to provide them with nutrients. Depending on the plants you are cultivating, fish emulsion and blood meal are good things to add to the soil. Furthermore, all types of compost such as leaves, kitchen scraps, and other nitrogen rich composts will make your garden flourish. Of course, remember the rule of moderation.
Gardening Tip #9: Detect Pests Early.
As your plants are getting bigger and better, always check for the signs of pests on the plant. Are the leaves holed and chewed? Is the plant dying because of some disease? if so, as a good gardener, you must take the steps to defend your plants. If you are being attacked by deer and rodents, you can put a net or radio out near the garden to distract and scare the pests, and bloodmeal will deter the deer. As for all diseases, there are organic formulas at the store that can help with them.
Gardening Tip #10: Stop Weeds Before They Start.
This is imperative. It is critical when gardening the old fashioned way, because I did not take care of them and they took over the garden in no time. Just a little care every day, saves hours and days of hard and unnecessary labor. Also, some natural prevention of corn gluten meal and a natural herbicide of vinegar may really ease your task of clearing the weeds.
I hope these gardening tips helped! I will be implementing them in my gardening as well. May these gardening tips ever be part of your gardening arsenal!
One of the most explosive industries over the last five years has been in sustainable economic development. Automobile companies are offering smaller, more fuel efficient vehicles along with fleets of hybrid fuel vehicles for environmentally conscious consumers. Furniture retailers are beginning to offer chairs, couches, and tables made of wood grown in responsible forestry preserves. Grocers, restaurants, and major retailers are offering organic food and clothing for customers who want to spend their money more responsibly. However, the most lucrative aspect of the green movement is in green construction. From energy efficient homes to buildings that run on a minimal amount of electricity, billions of pounds are invested annually into green construction.
Graduates with backgrounds in architecture, design, and management should consider breaking into this promising field. The green construction movement is only in its infancy, ensuring long careers for young professionals with the foresight to apply for these jobs. Construction companies of all sizes are beginning to expand their green construction operations, requiring graduates and young professionals interested in learning about this socially responsible field. As well, the possibilities are endless for professionals in the UK who invest their time in this industry. After all, most new commercial and residential buildings and additions will be done with environmental concerns at the forefront.
The skills needed by graduates in the green construction industry are varied and a successful skill set is still developing in this young industry. However, green construction firms are looking for creative, hard working, and committed graduates for design and management jobs. Graduates who can think outside of the box and provide innovative building designs will be successful in the green construction field. Managers, designers, and architects alike need to demonstrate a strong work ethic and an ability to sacrifice some of their time in order to ensure the most environmentally friendly buildings possible. Finally, everyone involved in green construction needs to be committed to the underlying idea of building homes and offices that meet their client’s specific needs.
Graduates who enter the green construction field will find a lot of competition but great financial incentives for successful work. The field of applicants is still small for these positions, giving committed graduates the opportunity to showcase their abilities to hiring managers. Once these professionals get their foot in the door, they will receive between 28,000 and 40,000 pounds per year depending on position. As well, many green construction employees receive stock options through their company which provide a nice bonus on an annual basis.
The home furniture industry used to be a booming enterprise. People would choose pieces that were stylish for the day and trash when a new trend came along. But the world is changing and we need furniture that is going to be durable and sustaining for more than a few years. There is nothing more solid than wood furniture that has been handmade. You are in charge of the type of wood, the structure and strength and moreover, the design.
Where to get the perfect downloadable home furniture woodworking plans is the first question that you need to ask yourself. Have these plans actually been tried or are they just a repeat of an article that was lifted from another site? Finding reliable home furniture woodworking plans for your building needs is the most important step in making your own furniture.
There are many professional woodworking experts that are willing to share their ideas and methods in building home furniture if you just know where to look. Now there is a website that lets you choose from leading wood craft that have designed and put together plans and detailed instructions that takes the guesswork out of your project.
Perhaps you are looking for a specific set of shaker coffee table plans that will withstand the torture of three kids and a dog but have been unable to locate plans that address bracing adequately. This is the site for you. Dozens of experts can show you how hand crafted furniture can be made to last for generations, not a limited amount of time.
File cabinets are another type of home furnishing that is becoming popular with home businesses starting up. There are several flimsy metal models at any department store that do not really match any type of decor or hold up to the usage that they receive. Building a solid wood piece that is classy and solid would be a great idea for the woodworker looking to provide home businesses with sustainable furniture. Experts can lend advice on types of wood to use, the best hardware and braces for such an application and durable finishes.
Creating sustainable home furniture can be relaxing and a moneymaking venture at the same time but if the wrong woodworking plans are used, your finished home furniture may look presentable but not withstand a durability test. Build it right the first time and you will not have wasted your efforts with amateur builders that give poor advice.
Buying plans on the Internet can be very useful in building your own home furniture but it takes much more than a set of blueprints and patterns. Listening to experts and using methods that have been tried and recommended is the only way to know that your time and labor have paid off.